How to make a warm floor do it yourself
Advantages of the heating system "warm floor"
Heating systems "warm floor" has long gained popularity. They can be used as an independent heating system or in conjunction with a traditional radiator. Warm floors have a lot of advantages in comparison with the radiator heating system:
- optimum distribution of heat throughout the room - the air is warmer on the floor and cooler on top, and this causes good health. If the room has high ceilings, there is no unnecessary heat loss due to the heating of the upper air layers;
- heat is transmitted in the form of radiation, which contributes to its susceptibility;
- no bulky radiators on the walls. This improves the appearance of the room and contributes to the rational use of space.
Types of systems "warm floor"
Currently, the most popular are the three types of heating systems "warm floor":
- with the use of coolant (usually water);
Water heating system is different in that between the overlap of the floors and the floor covering are pipes with hot water circulating through them. Such a system will not overheat, so you can install it under any floor covering. Such floors differ in convenience, comfort and profitability. If the house has a radiator heating system, the “warm floor” system can be connected to it.
The disadvantages of the water system “warm floor” include the fact that its temperature is relatively low, and as an independent heating system in regions with a cold climate, it is poorly suited. The height of the floor after its installation rises 10 cm and above. Such a system can be mounted only in apartments not on the ground floor or in a private house. In addition, the installation of such a warm floor requires a lot of time and great labor costs.
The cable system of the “warm floor” is based on the use of a special cable with multilayer insulation. With the passage of electric current, the cable heats up, then giving off heat to the floor covering, and through it to the room.There are two types of cable systems "warm floor" - resistive and self-regulating. Self-regulating cables have several advantages. They are reliable, due to design features do not overheat. Resistive cable systems are divided in turn into two types - using single- or twin-core cables. It is preferable to use the second type, since they are not a source of electromagnetic radiation and do not adversely affect human health. Cable heating systems can be laid under linoleum or tile.
The newest heating system "warm floor" are PLEN. The heating elements in them are polymeric films with a graphite coating with electrodes placed between them. When an electric current passes through the electrodes, they begin to interact with the graphite coating, which leads to the generation of infrared radiation. Infrared heating systems "warm floor" have advantages over the above:
- cheapness. The minimum cost of such a system is 1200 rubles per square meter;
- easy installation Even a person who has never done construction work can install an infrared heating system;
- security.Such floors do not overheat, so that the risk of fire is minimal. In addition, infrared radiation is beneficial for the human body;
- versatility. Such systems can be installed under any floor covering.
But do not forget that the power of such a heating system is provided by electricity, and electricity in our time is very expensive. In addition, like any other electrical equipment, the system may have a short circuit.
Installation of different heating systems "warm floor" due to their design features varies. What unites them is that in any case, any of them will consist of heating elements, thermostats and temperature sensors.
The most successful option for laying heating systems "warm floor" is the construction phase. If, however, it was not possible to do work at this stage, then the floor will have to be prepared for installation.
First, the existing flooring is removed. Dust, litter and dirt must be removed from the subfloor. If there are any cracks or pits on the subfloor, wipe them thoroughly.After that, the floor surface is leveled with sand or cement mortar.
In order to reduce heat loss, it is necessary to install a heat-insulating layer under the heating system. As insulation, you can use a tile or roll material, which is placed end-to-end, so that there are no gaps or gaps. The joints are necessarily glued with aluminum tape.
When installing a water heating system, it is necessary to check the surface level, so that there is no skew. If a bias occurs, a stagnant coolant may form in the system, leading to a deterioration in the quality of heating. When the rough floor is ready, you can install the system.
Installation of a water system
Water heating system "warm floor" has a number of features. For her work requires a circulation pump. In the absence of a pump, you need to create a gravity system and sustain the slope of the floor.
The water system can be one or two pipes. In the first case, the pump is connected before the supply pipe, and in the second - after. In addition, the length of the circuits for different heating systems will be different.With a two-pipe system, it should be no more than 50 m, and with a single-pipe system no more than 30.
When installing a water heating system "warm floor" is necessary at the junction of the circuits and install a damper tape around the perimeter of the room. This is done so that the floor screed does not collapse during operation. Damper tape is of different thickness, which is chosen based on the height of the concrete screed.
The insulating layer is laid on the damper tape. To exclude concrete leaks, as well as to create the best conditions for its drying, the insulation should be covered with a plastic film not less than 0.2 mm thick.
Next, the reinforcement mesh is laid with cells of 6-10 cm. It is placed on plastic rails in such a way that there is a gap between the floor and the reinforcement.
Rebar is laid on the floor. This may be a reinforcing mesh with a cell of 10 cm, or a mesh of 6-8 mm bar, connected at the intersection with a wire. The mesh is placed on plastic rails to create a gap between the reinforcement and the base.
Then, according to a pre-designed scheme, the water circuit is laid. The pipes for the contour is best to use metal or plastic. Apply two types of laying - a snail or a snake.The first method is more economical and convenient, since the contour contains fewer bends. In addition, the reverse loop in this case passes close to the straight line, which allows avoiding alternating sections of cold and warm floors. Contour pipe pitch depends on the climate in the region. In cold regions, a pitch of 15 cm or less is used, and in the south - 30 cm or more.
After laying the contour of the pipe down to the distribution point and connect. Then the system is filled with coolant, checking its integrity. Fill the concrete screed should be made on the filled circuit. The height of the screed should be such that it covers the contour with a margin of 5-6 cm. The drying time of the concrete depends on the brand and the layer thickness and is 3-4 weeks. The decorative covering is mounted after a full drying of a coupler.
Cable heating system
Cable heating system is placed either in the concrete screed, or in a layer of tile adhesive. The second method is relevant if the cable is used, fastened with a special mesh.
First of all, it is necessary to draw up a cable laying pattern. At the same stage, the place where the circuit is connected and the location of the temperature sensor and temperature controller is determined. When using this heating system, the heat-insulating layer is best used with a reflector.After that, the cable is laid and the thermoregulation system is installed. Thermoregulation is necessary to avoid overheating of the “warm floor”.
Next, the floor is filled with concrete and a decorative coating is installed. The efficiency of the system should be checked only after the concrete screed has completely dried - 3-4 weeks after pouring.
Infrared heating system
The best option for installing their own hands is the infrared heating system "warm floor". Films with heating elements can be installed directly on the insulating layer. Installation is carried out using a construction stapler. Each film has a mounting area, which is fastened with brackets. Violation of the integrity of the films outside this area may lead to undesirable consequences.
Between themselves wires PLEN are sealed with a soldering iron in stages. Soldering places are isolated. When mounting the films, you should ensure that the wires are directed toward the electrical panel. After laying the films, the temperature sensor and temperature controller are connected. When the system is installed, you should check its performance and troubleshoot if they show up.
When the system is completely ready for operation, PLA is covered with a protective film or a concrete screed is made. In the second case, you should wait for the concrete to completely dry before laying the flooring.
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